by Allison Aboud Holzer

Some people are natural nesters. When we first moved to New Haven, I couldn’t even sleep at night knowing that boxes were left unpacked. My home space is a haven to me and I need to be surrounded by images of people I love and souvenirs from memories I cherish in order to relax. I have a friend from college who, not to make a gender stereotypical comment but, seriously needs a woman’s touch to make his home cozy. Imagine white walls everywhere and just the bare essentials – clean and tidy, but completely impersonal.

A researcher named Barbara Kerr has studied the characteristics of what she defines as “happy homes.” One of her findings is that happy homes have pets, plants, and pictures! Before you jump out of your seat to make a run to your local florist – let me clarify that this finding is a correlation; there is no causal evidence to suggest which comes first, the chicken or the egg. In other words, it’s unclear whether happier people tend to be drawn to pets, plans and pictures; or, whether or not pets, plants, and pictures actually help make people feel happier.

Evidence to the latter is mostly speculative at this point. We know that pets have a positive impact on our moods (see Bliss Tip #1) for multiple reasons. It may be that the act of nurturing and deeply caring for another being, whether a pet or a plant, brings us a sense of fulfillment in our lives.

What about pictures? Well, we can argue that seeing pictures of people we love or other items that spark memories of joyful events encourages us to engage in something called “positive reminiscence.” Simply savoring past positive memories gives us a mood lift.

However, the truth is that pets and plants require a certain level of time commitment and may not be for everyone. So, I will focus on the third point about pictures and personalizing the home. For those of you feeling inspired by this post, here are a few ideas to get you started…

  1. Find and display pictures around of yourself and/or your spouse (or siblings) throughout your childhood, next to one another at around the same age.
  2. Create a Snapfish or Kodak album collage for each year that includes the top 1-3 photos from each major even of the year. Stack them around your house where you (and guests) can easily find them and browse through them.
  3. Collect one item – ticket stub, rock, napkin, be creative! –  from each family vacation that represents the spirit of the trips and display them around the house to savor those memories.
  4. Create and display a family tree! There are many software programs to help do this, or you can make one of your own.
  5. Ask your grandmother or parents for items from their childhood and place them around your home.
  6. Mark your calendar to rotate your pictures at least once a year to keep them fresh.
  7. Place photos of friends and family in unexpected, but visible, places – like inside drawers you open often.

As you get busy personalizing your home, send me your creative new ideas to add to this list!

  • B Kerr and C Chopp – Encyclopedia of Creativity, 1999
  • Robert Biswas-Diener and Ben Dean, Positive Psychology Coaching, 2008
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by Allison Aboud Holzer

A recent Op-Ed article in the New York Times argues against the romantic view of creativity as innate and deriving from a “divine spark.” Two recent books, one called The Timagesalent Code by Daniel Coyle and the other called Talent is Overrated by Geoff Colvin position true creative genius as resulting from hours upon hours of painstaking and focused practice. Approximately 10,000 hours to be exact. That’s about 5 years practicing a full-time 40 hours a week with no vacation. It’s a curious thing to consider.

Part of me wants to believe in that romantic spark of genius that ignited Princeton Professor John Nash’s theory of equilibrium before the age of 25. In a way, it sets these protégées apart as having a unique talent that no plebian could ever aspire to achieve. However, the article argues that what really sets Mozart and Tiger Woods apart is their uncanny ability to focus on their craft for hours upon hours at a time.

There’s a name for this in the social sciences: Flow. Mihaly Csíkszentmihályi studies Flow and says that achieving this state of concentration requires an optimal balance of challenge and accomplishment. Mentoring and coaching help achieving a Flow state by providing consistent feedback for development and growth. The ability to get into a state of Flow doing a particular activity really allows a person to gain those 10,000 hours of practice to achieve mastery.

But, do we need mastery, or even Flow, to feel content? Yes, no, maybe-so, depending on the person. While some people thrive on traditional concepts of achievement and mastery, others seem less concerned, because they don’t see themselves as artistic, scholarly, or athletic.

What if we expand our concept of mastery to include social and relational skills like: providing constructive feedback, expressing gratitude, parenting, managing, loving or jesting? Instead of thinking inside the boundaries of traditional “genius” talents (artistic, intellectual, and athletic), we also include mastery of social, emotional, and relational skills. I think, in this case, we can all develop areas of genius with about 10,000 hours of focused, intentional practice. A minimum of 5 years focused on one particular skill is similar to the process of getting a Ph.D. So, if you could get a Ph.D. in anything – parenting, loving, traveling, cooking… what would it be?

Don’t forget you’ll need to track those 10,000 hours for your dissertation defense.

by Allison Aboud Holzer

What’s sugar got to do with living a purposeful, meaningful, and blissful life? Both the presence and absence 250px-agave_tequilana01of it impacts how we feel. Scientific research shows that refined sugars and simple carbohydrates temporarily elevate mood (Prasad, 1998; Horton, 1987). The key word here being “temporary.” As many of us know, refined sugar treats quite effectively provide a short-term mood fix or bliss-boost.

Children seem to understand this intuitively. In my work at Yale, I visit multiple classrooms a year to see how students are learning and implementing Emotional Literacy in the Classroom (ELC) (Brackett & Rivers, 2008). This program teaches students how to develop strategies to regulate their emotions. Initially, before they learn more effective long-term strategies, students often voice eating ice cream or other sweet snacks as a way to feel better.

In the short-term, sugar provides a boost – but ultimately we crash and then need to consume more to quick-fix again, creating an unhealthy cycle of highs and lows. Long term sugar dependency may lead to mood swings, depressive feelings, and rumination about cravings, much like addictions to caffeine or other chemicals. Some people argue an abstinent approach is necessary to kick the sugar addiction, much like an alcoholic trying to stay sober. And for some, this strategy might work. Just the taste of sugar (refined or artificial) initiates cravings to eat more, making it even harder to resist.

For most people, however, this all-or-nothing approach is unrealistic and perhaps unhealthy. Psychologists who study goal setting report that repeated failures to meet overly ambitious goals ultimately reduce self-esteem and motivation. While “stretch goals” may be highly effective motivators, usually this is the case in areas when some level of motivation and confidence already exist. When feeling stuck or unmotivated, it is a more effective strategy to break goals down into small, concrete, and achievable benchmarks that enhance our self-esteem and motivation as each benchmark is achieved.

The long-term benefits of reducing sugar are clear: lower risk for disease, fewer cravings and mood swings ultimately contributing to a more balanced, content and serene life! So, without making Bliss Tip #16 an unrealistic “stretch goal” to make an extreme lifestyle change, instead I recommend simply reducing refined sugar in your regular diet in three new ways this year, like committing to use agave nectar to sweeten your coffee. If you don’t know how, order the book Get Sugar Out!

Breakey J (1997). The role of diet and behavior in childhood. Journal of Pediatric Child Health, 33: 190-194.

Horton JR & Yates AJ (1987). The effects of long-term high and low refined-sugar intake on blood glucose regulation, mood, bodily symptoms and cognitive functioning. Behavior Research and Therapy, 25: 57-66.

Prasad, C (1998). Food, mood and health: a neurological outlook. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31(12) 1517-1527.

Yudkin J (1982). Pure, White and Deadly: The Problem of Sugar. Davis Poynter, New York.

by Allison Aboud Holzer

Last night I attended a fundraiser at the Yale 82850635-bodyimageSchool of Management (SOM) called SOMonopoly. Not only were the “bling”-themed costumes fabulous but all of the decorations were customized, making the event both visually and emotionally colorful! As I watched live auctions for things like A Block Party Thrown Your Honor, I marveled at the themed décor including “property squares” named after local streets like Whitney Avenue rather than the traditional Park Place.

Between Halloween and school plays, kids have lots of opportunities to dress up and play games. My neighborhood friends used to play cops and robbers and Marco Polo, and these fantasies made us smile, laugh, and connect with each other. Several years later, my favorite day of High School used to be Pajama Day! Then, college campuses throw cocktail theme parties and many people carry these traditions well into adulthood. So, while the concepts of throwing theme parties, dressing up, and playing games, are nothing new, what makes them so much fun, especially in combination with one another?

Psychologically, play is essential to well-being and an important contributor to creativity. Research by Psychologist Barbara Fredrickson demonstrates that positive emotions actually have an adaptive function for human beings. While fear induces a “fight-or-flight” response that allows us to better focus in danger situations, joy creates a “broaden-and-build” response that promotes creativity and innovative thinking. Despite the stereotype of the tortured artist, research studies provide evidence that depression and anxiety inhibit, rather than expand, creative thinking. Therefore, engaging in play through dress up and games inspires positive emotions like joy, and ultimately, creative expression.

Play also provides us with a chance to engage in Flow – a process by which we are fully concentrated on a task to the point where we lose track of time. Just like toddlers, we adults benefit from the structured playtime games provide. Clearly defined tasks allow us to learn new things by challenging us without demanding too much. This optimal balance of structure and challenge promotes an environment for us to experience Flow.

Finally, play creates an opportunity for emotional connection with others. Sitting around a board game can feel quite intimate, but even Wii games like Rockband and Mario Kart can stimulate conversation, laughter, and bonding. A friend of mine recently attended a murder mystery party where she had to arrive in costume and socialize while acting in character.

So, with just a little theme scheming, you too can pull together an event that has your friends playing dress up and games all night!

** Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). The Broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 359 (1449), 1367-1377.

** Optimal experience by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi. Cambridge University Press (1992).

by Allison Aboud Holzer

Harvard Professor Tal Ben-Shahar in his book Happier defines “time poverty” as “the feeling that one is constantly stressed, rushed, overworked, behind.” Many of us feel this way every day with our work and personal obligations; even students suffer from “time poverty” as they strive to meet the competing demands of standardized tests, grades and extracurricular activities. There are often times so many different commitments vying for our time and attention, it can be challenging to tackle them all. This is when an organizational framework comes in handy.

Fast Company recently published an article called “Outstanding Performers Focus on Important but Not Urgent Tasks.” This article outlines a simple way to prioritize commitments in a personally meaningful way. This organizational strategy, originating from Steven Covey, places tasks in one of four quadrantswt_ch4_g_work_matrix based on their urgency and importance (see table below). Generally, urgent tasks are ones that are time sensitive and imposed on you by a circumstance (or sometimes, boss!). Important tasks, on the other hand, are meaningful ones that help you achieve your personal goals and passions. Let’s look more closely at each of these four quadrants:

  1. Important and Urgent – it’s hard to imagine forgetting to feed the dog (or children), celebrate a birthday, or meet as essential work deadline. These sorts of tasks, both urgent and important, are top priority and rarely forgotten: emergencies, meetings, and deadline driven commitments are a few examples.

  1. Important but Not Urgent – tasks that fall into this quadrant are ones that advance our personal goals without being deadline driven. Ironically, while these tasks contribute the most to our personal and professional fulfillment, they are the usually the first to be overlooked because of their non-urgent nature. Examples of tasks that fall into this quadrant are: vocational planning, exercise, cooking, relationship building, and personal and professional growth.

  1. Urgent but Not Important – when Quadrant II is being neglected it’s usually a result of Quadrant III, Urgent tasks that are Not Important. These sorts of tasks demand our attention without contributing to our personal goals: interruptions, phone calls, text messages, voice mails, emails, Facebook, Twitter, work meetings, reports, and people or projects requiring immediate attention.

  1. Not Important and Not Urgent – sometimes Not Important and Not Urgent tasks, such as trivial hobbies, time wasters, “escape” activities, and busywork, can also detract from Quadrant II. Not Important and Not Urgent activities can provide us with much needed downtime; however, too much focus on this quadrant can be detrimental to our personal and professional growth.

“Time poverty” occurs when focus is placed heavily on quadrants I, III, and IV without enough attention on II. Unfortunately, since businesses and schools typically focus on the Urgent, it becomes our responsibility to prioritize the Important! Without our intentional planning, these tasks will gradually, over time, fall through the cracks.

Interestingly, many religions build in time for Quadrant II through holidays,  services, and rituals. The spirit of the Sabbath, for example, is to commit a day of the week to restoring and building relationships and community. Outside of religion, though, what can you do to make sure Quadrant II does not get overlooked?

Take some time to reflect and write down as many tasks as possible that fall into your Quadrant II. For each one of these tasks, assign yourself a block of time each day or week that you devote to cultivating it, removing all other distractions. Then, boycott your Quadrant III (cell phone, Facebook, Twitter, text messaging) outside of certain pre-assigned blocks of time. Intentionally create more space for the things that really matter to you and minimize the time you spend on distractions.

Now, with that in mind, I love you guys and I love writing this blog, but I think it’s time for some QT with my family…




by Allison Aboud Holzer

I recently dog-sat a puppy Pomeranian named Quincy who illustrated to me what Psychologists call Social Comparison Theory. When Quincy arrived, I immediately gave him a bone to help him feel at ease in my home. My Tibetan spaniel named Stella watched inquisitively and immediately made a move to usurp Quincy’s prized bone. Noticing her jealousy I tried to solve the problem by providing her with another bone of the same kind. I called her over to give her the new bone and she happily began chomping away. Problem solved? Not exactly.

Quincy immediately became obsessed with Stella’s new bone. I tried directing his attention back to the lonely bone he had abandoned. With no success, I finally switched the two bones, giving Quincy the new one and Stella his old one. Problem solved now? Not quite.

At this point, both dogs stared longingly at each other’s bones with perfectly delectable bones sitting right between their paws! A case of “bone envy,” for sure! We humans understand this type of envy all too well.

Psychologists who study Social Comparison Theory look at the adaptive benefits and drawbacks of comparing ourselves to others. Usually, social comparison benefits us, by helping us feel more grateful, hopeful, and optimistic. For example, when we compare ourselves to others we believe to be socially better in some way (called “upward social comparison”), then we affiliate with more intelligent, attractive or successful people. As long as we feel similar enough to them, our association with them makes us more elite, enhancing our self-esteem and well-being. However, when we feel particularly vulnerable or our self-esteem is suffering, upward comparison may actually have a downward spiral effect. Like Quincy and Stella, we look at someone else and feel envy for what they have, while ignoring what is in front of us.

In these instances, a different kind of social comparison might provide just the remedy. By comparing ourselves to those worse off than we are, we enhance our self-esteem and feel more grateful for what we have. A research study on the 1992 summer Olympics looked at the emotional responses of bronze and silver medalists. It found that bronze medalists tended to be happier than silver medalists. The study hypothesized that silver medalists compared themselves upward to the gold medalists in a negative way, focusing on “what might have been”; bronze medalists, on the other hand, focused downward on all the other athletes who would go home that day empty handed, feeling grateful for receiving a medal.

Unlike our furry little friends, we humans can think logically and meta-cognitively. This means we can choose when to bring social comparison to our own awareness for our benefit. Rather than suffering from “bone envy” unnecessarily, we can use our feelings of envy as a clue that we might be comparing ourselves to others in an unproductive way.

When this happens, we can compare downward, recognizing the many ways we are doing okay compared to other less fortunate people in the world. This, in turn, helps us feel more grateful and reflect on what we DO have! While “downward social comparison” and “gratitude” might be tough strategies to sell to Quincy and Stella, we humans don’t have to suffer from “bone envy” every day.

** Medvec, V.H., Madey, S., & Gilovich, T. (1995) When Less is More: Counterfactual Thinking and Satisfaction Among Olympic Medalists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 603–610.

** Suls, J., Martin, R. & Wheeler, L. (2002). Social Comparison: Why, With Whom, and With What Effect? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 (5), 159-163.

by Allison Aboud Holzer

I feel very fortunate that I consider my work to be a calling. Although I play many different roles in my professional life (professional development coach, emotional literacy coach, workaholic_cartooncoaching program coordinator, coaching researcher, blog writer, and even children’s book author) my calling is quite clear. My passion is “personal and professional growth” and my calling is the advancement of this growth in (myself and) others through my many different professional roles. It’s not always been this simple for me, and it’s not always this simple for others.

Continuing on the career theme of Bliss Tips #10 and #11, creating a fulfilling professional identity requires vim, verve and grit. I view “job crafting” and prioritizing passion as key steps to identifying and maintaining a professional calling. I believe everyone has a calling, although it may not fall within the boundaries of a typical 9-to-5 job. Parenting, being a student, volunteering, creative pursuits – these are all forms of work that can be callings as well.

According to Wrzesniewski “satisfaction with life and with work may be more dependent on how an employee sees his or her work than on income or occupational prestige.” Her seminal research study on “Jobs, Careers, Callings” suggests that most people see their work in one of the following three ways:

1. Job – emphasis on financial rewards, necessity, or getting a pay check

2. Career – focus on advancement, achievement, and progress up the career ladder

3. Calling – prioritizing enjoyment, personal meaning, and doing work that is perceived as socially useful and benefiting others

Generally, people with all three orientations exist in every type of industry, including both blue and white collar jobs. While Wrzesniewski does not claim the “calling” orientation to be the ideal for everyone, she has found that these employees tend to experience greater work satisfaction and engage in proactive “job crafting” activities, often leading to more rapid advancement than their “job” and “career” oriented colleagues.

There is one potential caution area to having a calling. When you gain great fulfillment from your work, you may become what I call a “workaphilic.” Not to be confused with a “workaholic” who compulsively works without necessarily enjoying it, “workaphilics” may work a great deal because they love it so much!

So, pursue your calling with caution, being mindful of the delicate balance between work, family, leisure time and other areas of your life that you value. Pursue work that allows you to become a BALANCED “workaphilic”!

Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rozin, P. & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, Careers, and Callings: People’s Relations to Their Work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31 (1), 21 – 33.

by Allison Aboud Holzer

Find me a Subaru Outback owner and I’ll show you a person who loves intrinsic value. Nobody buys an Outback for speed or sexy design; it’s the dependable 05subaruoutback5002engine and safety that counts. This last week I drove my Outback down to Pennsylvania to learn about a personal growth assessment called the Pro-D. This assessment is unique in the sense that it analyzes mission, competency and style (terms for: “passion/interest,” “ability/skill,” and “personality”) across nine core values areas. The philosophy of the assessment aligns with my own. While all three are essential to success, the best scenario is one in which “passion” drives personal growth with “ability” as front-seat passenger and “personality” as backseat driver!

Put “ability” in the driver’s seat and all of a sudden the Outback is accelerating to 90mph – about to blow a tire. While most students are encouraged to pursue careers based on their strengths, competencies don’t always align with passions. Just imagine the child who receives accolades from parents, friends, and teachers for his natural talent as a musical protégée. The child feels pressured to practice and develop mastery in the fast last, seen by others as highly successful. All the while, he’s really fascinated by math and wishes he could spend his free time figuring out puzzles. Then, what about when “personality” drives? Watch out for road rage! A focus on “ability” without “passion” leads to burnout; “personality” without “passion” leads to boredom, emptiness or frustration.

I think what makes “passion” the most effective driver for our lives is that it helps us stay aligned with our vision. Passions affirm the parts of ourselves that we love most because they feel authentic – not because they impress or make sense to others.

Psychologists who focus on goal-setting often make the distinction between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” goals. “Extrinsic goals” are generally set for us by other people or created by outside pressures; “intrinsic goals,” on the other hand, align closely with our interests and values. As a result, we usually feel more motivated to achieve intrinsic goals, and they also provide us with a greater sense of accomplishment when we achieve them.

Try reflecting on your personal and professional goals and categorizing them as “intrinsic” or “extrinsic.” For those goals you recognize as extrinsic, ask yourself if they also align with your passions? Or are they goals you’ve set because of other people’s expectations? Be honest!

Now, make “passion” your driver. Focus exclusively on what really motivates, excites and fascinates you. What new goals do you want to add to your list? Can you adapt any of your previous goals to better align with your passions?

When we make “passion” the driver of our professional and personal lives, we not only get to where we’re going without a speeding ticket or accident, but we even enjoy the ride.

by Allison Aboud Holzer

Ever been caught in your cubicle sleep-talking about your “dream job” only to wake up and realize your boring, white-walled reality? Well, I’ve got just the denmarkremedy for you… Denmark!

According to data from the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, Denmark is the “happiest place on earth.” Dr. Ron Inglehart, director of the study, says that “the results clearly show that the happiest societies are those that allow people the freedom to choose how to live their lives.” Denmark does this by paying for citizens to attend the schools of their choice. Due to the incredibly high tax rates that provide this financial support, white collar jobs pay almost the same as blue collar jobs. Removing status or financial motives from job selection, Denmark citizens tend to choose careers based on their interests, strengths and passions. Denmark’s politics aside, doing what you love every day emotionally pays off.

But, with the reality of U.S. national employment rates rising every day, now might not be the time to risk stable income for a dream job. Yale business school Professor Amy Wrzesniewski may provide one possible solution for the cubicle sleep-talker.

Wrzesniewski researches a phenomenon called “job crafting.” She has found that some employees re-create their job descriptions to more closely align with their interests and passions. Employees who job craft do so by blurring the boundaries of their typical work day to align more closely with their desired work identity. For example, a phlebotomist interested in marketing might create a new logo and procedural manual for the lab; a teacher interested in law might create a legal club for students; or, a nurse interested in teaching might design a series of courses on hospital best-practices. Crafters do not limit themselves to job description alone; rather, they actively seek out new opportunities that more closely align with their strengths, interests and passions. Not surprisingly, they tend to be more satisfied with their jobs across all kinds of professions.

So, if you’re falling asleep at your cubicle, I challenge you to write your ideal job description: What types of activities would you like to do the most? What new topics or job skills would excite and challenge you? What professional development activities would stimulate you? Then, review the list and think creatively about ways you could change your typical work routine to include more of these activities.

While you may not wake up the next day in your dream job, chances are you will feel more engaged and excited about your work. And who knows what doors that new enthusiasm might open up for you?

Wrzesniewski, A. & Dutton, J. (2001). Crafting a Job: Revisioning Employees as Active Crafters of their Work. Academy of Management Review, 26 (2), 179 – 201.

http://www.isr.umich.edu/home/

by Allison Aboud Holzer

I love it when my dog, Stella, ignores me. You see, Stella is a formerly abandoned rescue dog. Her previous owner went to the ER one day and never came home. Stella almost starved to death waiting for her pack leader to return. When we first brought her home, she naturally feared being left behind. Any time we left, we could see the anxiety in her expression. Over the last year, we have worked hard with our Barkbusters trainers on her separation anxiety. And I am proud to say that Stella now ignores us when we come and go – a demonstration of her optimism that we will always return home to her.

Martin Seligman from the University of Pennsylvania first studied optimism by observing the behavior of dogs.[1] His experiments eventually led to the creation of his theory called Learned Optimism.[2] While some people are naturally more optimistic than others, optimism is an attitude that can be learned with practice and dedication.  

According to Seligman, optimists interpret positive events as personal, permanent and pervasive and negative events as impersonal, temporary and specific. An optimist would say:

  • “I got the job because I’m smart and talented (permanent and personal). I will always get the job when I put my mind to it (pervasive)!”
  • OR, “I didn’t get the job because there were many other qualified candidates (impersonal). This wasn’t the right time (temporary) or the right job (specific) for me.”

Contrast that with pessimists who interpret positive and negative events in the opposite way:

  •  “I got lucky this time getting the job (temporary and specific). There must not have been many other candidates applying (impersonal).”
  • OR, “I didn’t get the job. I’m a failure (personal and permanent). I don’t know why anyone would want to hire me (pervasive).”

Try keeping an optimism journal to develop new habits. First, record your thought reactions to positive and negative events in your life for at least two weeks. Second, study your notes and look for areas in your life where you lean more toward pessimism. Finally, challenge yourself to write down optimistic responses to your pessimistic thoughts for two more weeks. Then reflect on what this process was like for you.

It takes a lot of work to develop a new habit of intentional optimism; but new research continues to validate that it’s worth the effort.  A recently published study by University of Pittsburg researcher, Dr. Hilary Tindle, shows that optimistic women not only have fewer incidences of cancer and heart disease, but they are 14% less likely than pessimists to die an early death.[3] Tindle says that optimistic people may be more proactive about their health, have stronger and larger support networks, and/or cope better with stress.

I’m a big believer that old dogs can learn new tricks. If my 5-year-old dog Stella can learn optimism, then we all can!

  1. Seligman, M. (1976). Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 3 – 46.
  2. Seligman, M. (2006). Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life. Vintage Books, NY.
  3. Tindle, H.A., Chang, Y., Kuller, L.H. (2008). Optimism, Hostility and Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative. American Heart Association, S_1145-S_1146.

 


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